9th London County Asylum
What: Mental Hospital
Where: Epsom, Surrey
Architect: George Thomas Hine
Listed: Chapel only, Grade II.
Visited: 2009, 2012
Last Known Condition: Mostly demolished or converted.
Chapel and Horton House remain vacant, the latter derelict.
Page Updated: October 2012
Horton Hospital, originally the London County Asylum at Horton, was the second mental institution to be built by the London County Council on the Horton Estate (later known as the Epsom Cluster). The asylum, designed by George Thomas Hine, architect to the Commissioners in Lunacy, was an exact replica of the earlier Bexley Asylum in Kent and had 2000 beds. Opened in 1902, like most large mental institutions of the day, the asylum had its own chapel, laundry, tailor's. shoemaker's and upholsterer's, bakery, butchery and an extensive farm estate which allowed near self-sufficiency.
During the First World War the Asylum was requisitioned by the Army Council, the 2143 inmates were transferred to the neighbouring hospitals and it became the Horton War Hospital, a general hospital for servicemen from all parts of the Empire. Following the armistice marking the end of hostilities, the hospital was returned to the LCC; during its war service, Horton had treated over 46,000 patients. In 1920 the 'asylum' was re-named Horton Mental Hospital; by 1922 it had 1,605 patients, of whom 1,418 were women and only 187 were men.
Between the Wars, the hospital played an important role in the development of Induced Malaria Treatment (IMT) as a cure for general paralysis of the insane, a symptom of advanced syphilis. The treatment involved infecting patients with malaria which caused a high fever meant to kill the spirochetes which caused the disease.
The Malaria Therapy Unit became a national centre for mosquito breeding and sent infected mosquitoes to all British hospitals which used the treatment. Although the use of penicillin gradually replaced IMT, the unit diversified into malaria research and by the 1970s the unit had become the World Health Organisation's Regional Malarial Centre for Europe.
The hospital was again requisitioned, this time as part of the Emergency Medical Service (EMS) between 1939 and 1947, treating battle and air-raid casualties and cases of general sickness in civilians.
Horton became part of the National Health Service in 1948: at this time there were 527 beds, with 93 male patients in three wards and 255 females in six wards. Unfortunately, the hospital was in a poor state, having had no investment during the war years and retaining only a small numbers of trained staff. Under the NHS, recruitment of student nurses started immediately and by the end of 1949 the Health Authority had re-opened 11 female and 8 male wards. In 1950 work to modernise and improve the wards and equipment began, which saw the total number of beds brought up to 1386 beds and the opening of a modern X-ray Department, Occupational and Industrial Therapy Departments and a Ladies' Hairdressers'.
The hospital saw further changes under the Mental Health Act, 1959: the word 'mental' was dropped from the hospital's name, most certified patients (80%) were now given informal status and steps taken towards rehabilitation.
The act also saw a rise in admissions via the judicial system: in 1961 some 100 males and 25 females had been admitted by this channel and Horton Hospital was known to house more mentally ill offenders than any other hospital in the country.
In 1961 the west end of the hospital chapel was partitioned off and became the Music Therapy Centre, opened by H.R.H. Princess Mary, Princess Royal and Countess of Harewood. In 1963 it was renamed Harewood Hall in her honour. At this time, the hospital had 1,531 beds at a cost of £9 16s 10d each per week.
The 1960s saw a change in attitudes to mental health and by the 1970s patient numbers had begun to decline: by 1979 the bed numbers had been reduced to 1,203 and by 1985 there were just 952.
In 1995 the hospital was chosen as the site of a pioneering treatment centre for sex-offenders. The Wolvercote Clinic specialised in the intensive treatment of convicted paedophiles and gained an international reputation for effective treatment with non-reoffending rates estimated at 80%. Treatment was carried out in secure accommodation for up to 12 months at a time and involved teaching patients to acknowledge their sexual responses to children and to take control of their own behaviour.
In 1997 the Hospital finally closed with the exception of the Wolvercote Clinic which continued until 2002 and a small unit with 67 beds known as Horton Haven which remains open to this day.
Demolition began in 2003 and by 2008 was mostly complete. The outer wards and admin block were retained and converted to housing while the chapel and superintendent's lodge remained in a derelict or semi-derelict state. The tower survived unconverted until c.2011 when it was demolished, but the other buildings remained untouched in October 2012.
Special thanks are due to Love Me, Love My Mind and Epsom and Ewell Borough Council for arranging access to the chapel as part of the excellent Epsom Mental Health Week in 2012.
Epsom Cluster Introduction